Tuesday, June 11, 2019



what-is-a -file-system

If you are a tech guy or familiar with computer So you've heard the NTFS, FAT, but you have some questions in mind, such as what is a file system ?, types of file system, what is FAT,NTFS , how they work and many more. don't worry, in this article i easily discussed all the questions . So read this article with attention and remove all doubts about file system .


A file system is a process or system that store, manage, organize data in a storage devices. These devices can include hard drives, optical drives and flash drives. there are lots of storage devices are available and each device has different file storage process. why they are different because, the data is retained each of them differently . if you are work with computer , you must be know that -

in a HDD drive  store the data electromagnetically. ( in a hdd have many platters and disk heads which move above the disk platter. and it's read/write data on the patter )

in a CD drive there are no movable parts inside the CD drive . they can store data optically by the laser beam.

Similarly, in a pen drive store data in different technique. there are no any movable parts or laser beam inside the pen drive. They store data by NAND Flash Memory Chip.

so the computer must know that how the data is retained on every device. how data is to be read and write from that drive. because every device works differently. The file system helps solve this problem on the computer.


There have many types of file system . all have a Different work technique. such as file size, storage capability, security and many more. also the different type of file system can differ by OS. for example :- windows os support the FAT or NTFS . and similarly MAC os support the HFS+ . Linux support the ext2, ext3, ext4 file system.

The Major File System:

  • FAT :

FAT stands for File allocation table . it is older version of the file system.  FAT file also known as universal file system because it's support all OS system. FAT was design in 1997 for floppy drive. now it is adapted  in HDD but FAT file system also used this time . it is very much use in flash drive and pen drive . in a FAT partition are limited in size to a maximum of 4GB under windows NT and 2GB in MS-DOS.
there are many limitation or disadvantages in FAT. such as -
we can not create a FAT 32 partition greater then 32 GB in this version of windows.
we cannot store a file larger then 4GB on a FAT32 partition.
FAT cannot match the performance of more modern file systems.

types of FAT file system are FAT12, FAT16 or FAT32 .
  •  exFAT:

exFAT is the upgrade version FAT. which is introduced in 2006. Its latest version of file system. This is not compatible backward FAT file systems. it can support newer version of windows like windows XP,vista,7,8,10, server etc.  it also support the MAC os. the most advantage of exFAT is- you can store data larger than 4GB, which is not possible in FAT file system.
  • NTFS :

NTFS stands for New Technology File System. Which is introduced in 1993 with windows NT OS.  it is most popular in windows os. in NTFS file system you can store data maximum 16TB. it's supports newer version of windows like windows 2000,XP,vista,7 etc. NTFS file system have more advance feature such as security access control (ACL), reliability, disk space utilization etc. and it gives an interesting feature like automatic error repair, if any error show in storage device it is automatic repair without any notification . NTFS system supports other features that normally use the last 4 MB drive space in a 100 MB partition.
  • HFS :

HFS stands for Hierarchical File System. This used in MAC os which is developed by Apple Inc. HFS design in1985 for floppy drive and HDD drive. HFS also used in CD-ROMs.

Difference between FAT and NTFS:

you can't store data maximum 4 GB in FAT 32.
you can store data maximum 16TB in NTFS.
you can convert FAT32 to NTFS
but NTFS Can not convert to FAT 32 .
NTFS file system gives you more security as compare to FAT .
you can't compressed file in FAT where NTFS gives you this feature.
  •  ENCRYPT :
you can encrypt data in NTFS but it's not possible in FAT .

How to check drive file system :

There are many way to check the drive's file system. but in this article i have share with you most easy and effective process.

at first double click on the MY COMPUTER icon then you will see all active drives which are currently attached to the computer.

then choose the drive (You want to check that file system) -> right click on it -> click the properties option .

Then a new tap will open, where you can see the file system type.


if you read this article Very carefully . then I'm sure you know very well about the file system .and all your doubts about the file system will be end. 

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